grackle and starling differences

In the avian world, the Common Grackle and the European Starling are often observed in similar environments, leading to frequent differences between the two. Although at a glance they may share some habitats and behaviors, but Grackle vs Starling is a comparative analysis that will help you understand a plethora of differences that set these two species apart.

From their physical attributes to their diet, behavior, and ecological roles, understanding these distinctions not only enriches our knowledge of avian diversity but also highlights the adaptability and uniqueness of each species.So, let’s get to it:

Grackle vs Starling- How to Tell the Differences?

Here are some main points of differences between both birds:

Difference between grackle and starling

Physical Differences

One of the most noticeable differences between the Common Grackle and the European Starling lies in their physical appearance. 

The Common Grackle is larger, measuring approximately 11-13 inches in length, compared to the European Starling’s 8-9 inches. Grackles possess a long, keel-shaped tail that adds to their larger silhouette, whereas starlings have shorter tails giving them a more compact appearance. 

Additionally, grackles have a more pronounced iridescent sheen, with males displaying striking blue heads and bronzed bodies, while starlings exhibit a speckled appearance with white spots on a dark background in the non-breeding season, transitioning to a glossy, iridescent coat during breeding season.

Behavioral and Diet Variation

Behaviorally, both species exhibit social tendencies, especially in non-breeding seasons when they form large flocks. 

However, the European Starling is noted for its exceptional vocal mimicry, capable of imitating a wide range of sounds from other bird species to mechanical noises, a talent not shared by the Common Grackle.

Diet-wise, while both are opportunistic feeders, grackles tend to show a preference for corn and other grains, making them a particular nuisance to farmers, whereas starlings have a more varied diet that can include insects, fruits, and garbage, showcasing a remarkable adaptability to different food sources.

Habitat and Plumage

Although both species are adaptable and can thrive in urban to rural environments, grackles have a tendency to prefer wetter habitats like marshes and fields near water bodies. 

Starlings, introduced to North America in the 19th century, have shown an incredible ability to colonize a wide range of environments, often outcompeting native species for nesting sites.

 In terms of plumage, the grackle’s iridescence is more pronounced and varied in color, offering hues of violet and bronze, contrasting with the starling’s more uniform sheen and seasonal speckled pattern.

Species Distinction

Taxonomically, the Common Grackle and the European Starling belong to different families; grackles are part of the New World blackbirds (Icteridae), while starlings are members of the starling family (Sturnidae). 

This distinction underlines not only their different evolutionary paths but also influences their behavior, breeding patterns, and vocalizations. 

Such diversity exemplifies the richness of avian life and the complexity of their relationships with ecosystems and human activities.

Grackle vs Starling-Breeding Habits

The breeding behaviors of the two species showcase notable differences. Common Grackles are polygynous, with males often mating with several females, who then are solely responsible for nest-building and incubation.

 Their nests are typically built in trees or shrubs. In contrast, European Starlings are monogamous during a breeding season, with both males and females participating in nest building.

 Starlings are also known for their aggressive behavior in taking over the nests of other birds, sometimes even ejecting existing eggs to claim a site for their own.

Impact on Ecosystems

Both species can have significant impacts on their ecosystems, though the nature and extent of these impacts may differ. 

The European Starling, being an invasive species in North America, is often cited for its negative effects on native bird populations by competing for nesting sites and food resources. Their large flocks can also damage crops and contribute to the spread of livestock pests and diseases. 

The Common Grackle, while native to North America, can also impact agriculture, particularly in grain-producing areas where they feed on crops like corn and rice.

However, their impact is more localized compared to the widespread implications of starling populations.

Adaptations to Human Environments

Both grackles and starlings have shown remarkable adaptability to human-altered landscapes, but their methods of exploiting these environments can vary.

Starlings are particularly adept at utilizing urban structures for nesting, often nesting in building crevices and other man-made structures. Grackles, while also urban dwellers, are more likely to exploit human food sources, often being observed foraging in trash bins and agricultural fields.

Their behavior in urban settings can sometimes make them a nuisance, but it also highlights their ability to thrive in close proximity to humans.

Vocalizations and Communication

While both species are known for their vocal abilities, the European Starling’s capacity for mimicry sets it apart. 

Starlings can mimic a variety of sounds, from other bird species to mechanical noises, using this ability to communicate within their flocks and possibly to deter predators

Common Grackles also have a range of vocalizations, including clicks, whistles, and croaks, which they use for communication, but they do not exhibit the same level of mimicry as starlings.

Grackle vs Starling :Migration Patterns

Migration patterns also differentiate the two species. 

Common Grackles in the northern part of their range migrate to the southern United States and Mexico for the winter, while many European Starlings remain in their breeding range year-round, especially in the milder climates of their introduced range in North America.

These additional differences underscore the distinct ecological niches that the Common Grackle and the European Starling occupy. 

Their respective adaptations, impacts on native ecosystems, and interactions with human environments offer valuable insights into the complexity of bird species’ roles within their ecosystems and the challenges of managing species that are considered pests or invasive.

5 Interesting Facts About the Grackle

Let’s uncover some amazing details about Common Grackle:

common grackle facts diet origin

Iridescent Plumage

They have a striking iridescent plumage that can appear black at a distance but up close, shines with hues of blue, green, and purple, particularly in sunlight. This sheen is more pronounced in males, especially during the breeding season to attract females.

Flexibility in Diet

They are known for their incredibly flexible diet. They can eat a wide range of foods, including insects, lizards, seeds, grains, fruits, and even small birds or bird eggs. This adaptability in feeding habits helps them thrive in a variety of environments.

Tail Shape and Function

One of the unique physical characteristics of the Common Grackle is its long, keel-shaped tail, which is used for balance and maneuvering during flight. The tail shape is particularly distinctive in flight and aids in their identification.

Vocal Mimics

While not as proficient as some other bird species, grackles can mimic the sounds of other birds and even human-made noises to some extent. Their own vocal range includes a variety of harsh sounds, clicks, whistles, and other complex calls.

Social Creatures

They are highly social birds, often seen in large flocks, especially outside of the breeding season. These flocks can include thousands of individuals and are known for their loud, cacophonous gatherings in trees, on telephone wires, or foraging on the ground.

5 Interesting Facts About the Starling 

Let’s uncover some amazing details about European Starlings.

european starling facts

Incredible Mimics

 European Starlings are among the best mimics in the bird world. They can imitate a vast array of sounds, from other bird species’ calls to mechanical noises and human-generated sounds, using these vocalizations to communicate within their complex social structures.

Introduced Species

 The European Starling was intentionally introduced to North America in the 1890s, and since then, it has become one of the continent’s most widespread and successful bird species. The initial release of just 100 birds in Central Park, New York, has led to a population of millions across the continent.


They are famous for their spectacular aerial displays known as murmurations. These are complex, coordinated patterns created by thousands of birds flying together, believed to be a defense mechanism against predators and a way to keep warm in winter.

Breeding Plumage

They undergo a significant transformation in their appearance between seasons. In the breeding season, their plumage is glossy and iridescent with a purple and green sheen, and they sport striking white spots. These spots wear off over time, and by winter, the birds appear darker with less speckling.

Versatile Eaters

 Like grackles, starlings have a varied diet that allows them to adapt to many environments. They feed on insects, earthworms, fruits, and seeds. In urban areas, they are also known to eat garbage and animal feed, making them highly adaptable survivors in diverse habitats.


Despite superficial similarities, the Common Grackle and the European Starling exhibit significant differences in physical characteristics, behavior, diet, and ecological impact. Understanding these differences is crucial for bird enthusiasts, ecologists, and anyone interested in the conservation and management of bird populations, especially in areas where both species coexist and interact with native bird species and human agriculture.


Are grackles good birds to have around?

Grackles can be both beneficial and challenging to have around. On the positive side, they consume large quantities of insects, including pests harmful to crops and gardens. Their adaptability to different environments makes them a fascinating species for bird watchers.

However, in large numbers, grackles may become a nuisance due to their noisy behavior and potential to damage crops. They can also dominate feeders, deterring smaller birds.

Is a grackle a type of crow?

No, a grackle is not a type of crow. Although grackles and crows both belong to the order Passeriformes, they are in different families. Grackles are part of the Icteridae family, which includes New World blackbirds, orioles, and cowbirds.

Crows are members of the Corvidae family, which also includes ravens, jays, and magpies. The two can be distinguished by their size, behavior, vocalizations, and physical characteristics, such as the grackle’s iridescent plumage and longer tail.

What is the difference between a starling and a blackbird?

The term “blackbird” can refer to several species within the Icteridae family, such as the Red-winged Blackbird or the Common Grackle. Starlings, specifically the European Starling, belong to the Sturnidae family. The main differences include their family classification, plumage details (starlings are more iridescent with a speckled appearance during part of the year), and behavior, including the starling’s ability to mimic sounds.

Additionally, blackbirds native to North America show variations in color and size that differ from the uniform appearance of starlings.

What is the difference between a grackle and a cowbird?

Grackles and cowbirds are both members of the Icteridae family, but they belong to different genera and exhibit different behaviors. Grackles are larger, have iridescent plumage, and typically build nests to raise their young.

Cowbirds, on the other hand, are known for their brood parasitism; female cowbirds lay their eggs in the nests of other bird species, leaving the host birds to raise the cowbird chicks. Physically, cowbirds are smaller and lack the long tail and iridescent sheen of grackles.

Are grackles related to starlings?

Grackles and starlings are not closely related. Grackles are part of the Icteridae family (New World blackbirds), while starlings belong to the Sturnidae family. While they may share some behaviors, such as forming large flocks and being adaptable to various environments, their similarities are due to convergent evolution rather than close genetic relations.

Is a raven a grackle?

No, a raven is not a grackle. Ravens are much larger birds and belong to the Corvidae family, which includes crows, jays, and magpies. Ravens are known for their impressive intelligence and problem-solving abilities, as well as their larger size and deeper, more resonant calls compared to grackles. Grackles, in contrast, are smaller, have iridescent plumage, and belong to the Icteridae family.

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